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In some of the cases mentioned above, violent conflict came about by the annulment of a free and fair democratic process and, in others, serious internal political violence began after what the people saw as flaws occasioned by heavily rigged elections, winners seeking to exclude some actors or whole sections of the country, or incumbents being unwilling to submit to the will of the people as expressed through the ballot box.
In some other cases, these conflicts have not yet led to severe violence mainly because the situations were greatly repressed.
Term papers on lewis and clark trail
What appears clear from the difficulty experienced in the political transitions in many of these countries is that the governance record is very akin to the colonial style of governance inherited in the respective countries.
The leadership only replicated the colonial leadership style which was for all practical purposes master application essays rule since it was structured mainly in authoritarian terms.
It was also curious in Cameroon to note that 30 of the members of the Senate of the country were appointed by the President. These kinds of governance manoeuvres in a post-colonial situation remain consistent with the inherited tradition of political power and dominance of the colonial administration.
As Thomas pointed out, modernity itself can be understood as a colonialist project in the special sense that both the societies internal to Western nations, and those they possessed, administered and reformed elsewhere, were understood as objects to be surveyed, regulated and sanitised. After cataloguing and categorising the different conflict types in post-independence Africa, it may now be appropriate to highlight the debate on conflict resolution and conflict management, consider the main intervention agencies and examine the different approaches employed to deal with the different conflicts.
Stephen Ryan has asserted that too often conflict resolution is used as a cover-all term that fails to face up to the different processes involved in the reduction or elimination of violence.
This statement seems to be very evident of the African conflict situation especially when scholars and practitioners alike refer to the handling of conflict in Africa. It is necessary to explore the main features of conflict resolution and conflict management, two approaches in conflict scholarship, in order to better understand and assess the motivations and actions of intervening agencies or actors. The first major difference between the two approaches concerns the desire or not to raise the fundamental issues that divide the parties to a conflict.
Proponents of the resolution approach favour the raising of fundamental issues because they believe that conflict can be resolved. As Mitchell pointed out, not merely will disruptive conflict behaviour cease and hostile attitudes and perceptions at least be ameliorated, but the ultimate source of conflict that is, the situation of goal incompatibility will also be removed so that no unsatisfied goals remain to plague the future.
Proponents of the management approach, on the other hand, believe that attempts to resolve conflicts are unrealistic, so rather than dealing with basic issues, attention should be concentrated on ameliorating the symptoms of the conflict, and in this way reducing suffering Ryan Scholars of the resolution approach argue that the unsolvable nature of a particular conflict is more apparent than real.
John Burton ; ; ;for example, calls for the adoption of a human needs approach, arguing for a paradigm shift in how we analyse term papers on lewis and clark trail. For Burton, most conflicts arise because one or more groups are denied their basic human needs as advanced by GaltungDoyal and Gough and others. The second major difference between the two approaches relates to the chances of obtaining a self-sustaining settlement or outcome.
Light claimed that conflict resolution offers a more viable outcome to conflict, because it converts the conflict into a shared problem, setting up a process in which both sides participate equally in finding solutions which are acceptable to term papers on conflict resolution and which, therefore, are self-sustaining.
Those who advance the management approach argue rather that given the lack of a community of interest, the most that can be hoped for is the suppression or perhaps the elimination of overt violence.
One wonders whether the latter view is not the basis for all the peace-keeping forces prescribed for conflicts in Africa over the decades. The third main difference concerns the role of the third party in responding to violence. Many proponents of the resolution approach tend not to believe in enforced settlements, a process upheld by proponents of the management school.
In the resolution approach, the consent and contentment of the parties to a conflict are central. The solution to the conflict term papers on conflict resolution this approach ought not to be imposed from outside.
In this case, the third party plays a vital role, but only to the extent that the third party facilitates the interaction process.
Edward de Bono popularised much of the thinking on how this can be done.
Term papers on conflict resolution
As he put it:. In a conflict situation the two parties are unable to stand outside their own perceptions. In order to move from the argument to the design mode there is a need for a third party. The third party is not a go-between, negotiator or mediator. The third party acts as a mirror, an overview, a provider of provocation and creativity and a director of thinking.
While Burton on his part suggested that enforced settlement is not resolution of conflict, Groom also favoured the resolution of a conflict above a settlement, arguing that resolution is not a settlement imposed by a victor or a powerful third party, but rather a new set of relationships freely and knowledgeably arrived at by the parties themselves. This situation is different from the management of conflict viewpoint. Ryan has pointed out that even the term management implies a certain amount of arm-twisting, and to do this effectively power is required.
The belief, according to Ryan, that basic issues cannot be resolved logically encourages the assumption that the natural state of affairs between the parties is conflict and that a third force is needed to ensure an acceptable degree of order and stability.
This will have to take the form of a coercive intervention, sometimes by military or paramilitary forces; sometimes through economic measures.
A review of conflict intervention in Africa over the decades reveals that conflict resolution in Africa has rather been about conflict management since it has focused mainly term papers on amazoncom a certain amount of arm-twisting and coercive intervention with military and para-military forces.
Zartman has indicated that the United Nations Security Council deployed nine peace-keeping missions to Africa in the s alone. The point in this analysis is that proponents of the management approach favour coercive interventions and are less scrupulous in seeking the consent of all the parties. Ryan cited the example of the London Conference of which resulted in the independence of Cyprus to illustrate the point that in the management approach the third parties may try and impose a solution by working behind the backs or above the heads of one or more of the main contenders.
He explained that Archbishop Makarios was forced by Britain and Greece to accept oxbridge essays he did not approve. In Africa, the idea of conflict resolution has been colonial in design and implementation in that the solutions are more often coercively imposed on the weaker parties. Like the Cyprus situation, there are conflict cases in Africa in which powerful third parties have also worked behind the backs or above the heads of some contenders.
In these situations, the focus has been on the use of power at the disposal of former colonial states to impose whatever solution was in the interest of the intervening powerful third-parties Webb, Koutrakou and Walters ; Skjelsbaek and Fermann Skjelsbaek and Fermann indicated that even in the mediations undertaken under the auspices of the UN, the actor in international relations supposedly with claims to impartiality and neutrality, these vested interest considerations seem to be in play always.
With the foregoing discussion on intervention approaches in African conflicts, one may want to inquire about the nature of the history of intervention in African conflicts. A review of intervention efforts in African conflicts in the last two or three decades of the 20 th century brings out two main trends in regard to the main actors or agencies and the intervention approaches involved.
The first trend shows that the main actors intervening in African conflicts were almost entirely from outside of Africa. These were individuals, countries, groups of countries, institutions and organisations. As Term papers on budgets Cohen pointed out, until Africa was almost totally dependent on outside entities for conflict management The second strong idea that emerges from intervention literature is the increasing emphasis on conflict management rather than resolution as the intervention approach in Africa.
From the examples provided earlier, one can affirm that the conflict management approach has been dissertation assistance writing dominant approach in African conflicts. Examples taken from the different sub-regions of Africa are illustrative.
In East Africa, the war in South Sudan, the collapse of the State in Somalia, and the conflicts in Rwanda and Burundi, the situation in Ethiopia as well as the wars in former Zaire, are significant examples of protracted conflicts. These conflicts were only addressed superficially, their intensity notwithstanding.
In spite of all term papers on lewis and clark trail urgency concerning the conflict in Burundi, the focus was mainly on diplomatic interventions by several agencies and actors.
These interventions ended up with the establishment of War Crime Tribunals with none of the actors giving any consideration for the need to address the deep concerns of the parties in the conflict. The tribunals seem to have been intended for punishing individuals chosen for destruction by the powerful stakeholders rather than for unearthing the causes of conflict that remain deeply rooted in the respective societies.
It is difficult to imagine how the War Crimes Tribunal in Rwanda helped to bring justice to the situation bred, for instance, by colonialism and the de-colonisation process in Burundi and Rwanda. The case was not different in Sierra Leone and Liberia.
In spite of the colonial basis of this conflict, it was difficult for many years to state any willingness on the part of the agencies to seek a lasting solution by addressing the profound causes of conflict. Cohen summed it all when he affirmed that East Africa in general was a sub-region where neither the African Speech writing companies AU nor the international community had been able to advance conflict management significantly beyond humanitarian intervention.
As stated earlier, former colonial powers have been involved in the efforts to address conflicts in Africa. In the meantime the deeper conflict in the US may--or term papers on leadership not--be managed to limit its destructiveness. In Februaryfew people even seem interested in conflict management. Rather, both sides in the US political conflict are pursuing a variety of power contests in attempt to assert their views at the expense of the other.
The best hope, it would seem, is the last concept--conflict transformation. Transformation focuses on changing relationships and the images that people have of each other and of their shared dilemmas.
Certainly changing such things could go a long way towards reducing the vitriol in the current U. Conflict transformation is a key prerequisite to conflict resolution in many other conflicts as well.
Martin's Press, Martin's Press,5. Deutsch's introduction offers a brief explanation of the difference and the ensuing chapters offer in-depth examinations of constructive and destructive aspects of conflict and its resolution.
Use the following to cite this article: Spangler, Brad. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is the most serious, and the most neglected, problem facing humanity. Solving today's tough problems depends upon finding better ways of dealing with these conflicts.
Educators Consider a low-cost BI-based custom text. Constructive Conflict Initiative. Join Us in calling for a dramatic expansion of efforts to limit the destructiveness of intractable conflict. Practical things we can all do to limit the destructive conflicts threatening our future.
Conflict interveners whose practices are well established on theories of conflict resolution and ongoing researches need to refine their assumptions and skills through an extensive process.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss specific techniques and tools to resolve conflict within the workplace. A description of a workplace conflict at my current place of employment will be provided. The impact that cultural norms may have on conflict will be briefly considered. In discussing resolution of this particular conflict, specific techniques. Many people lead busy and challenging lives, so they encounter conflict on a daily and sometimes hourly basis at home or at work.
As for the people who become involved in conflict, they rarely have any or little understanding about the sources of conflict or how to manage it when it occurs.
The whole other level that many people fail to understand is how often nurses encounter conflict and how difficult it can be to find a resolution. Between dealing with patients and their family, nurses also have. Conflict resolution in the workplace Introduction Conflict is a fact in any relationship including the work area.
Still, it is important to emphasize that some conflicts should not be seen as good or bad, they are just differences. Many times when there are disagreements between players these issues are left on the table without giving much emphasis. Unfortunately some of these conflicts have reached a level that ends in a term papers on amazoncom altercation. When things get out of proportion, the sports psychologist. Conflict Resolution Essay. Understanding conflict, what causes it, and how to resolve conflict effectively Continue Reading.
The disagreement Continue Reading. There are five different conflict resolution styles, which Continue Reading. Along with advantages Continue Reading. The components and benefits of family mediation and conflict resolution were introduced Continue Reading. Next day the staff meeting was called on term papers on conflict resolution Manager and all the night staff were called to attend Continue Reading.
Conflict is inevitable as humans interact, because not everyone shares the same beliefs, values, opinions, level Continue Reading. The bad news Continue Reading.
If conflict is appropriately addressed it can be healthy and beneficial Continue Reading. The conflict was that I had a really good idea and I was expressing my opinion, but my groupmates Continue Reading. This has been a constant struggle for me because Continue Reading.
Without holding Continue Reading. Conflict can be viewed as functional Continue Reading. Evidence of unresolved conflicts in greater Continue Reading. Conflict has many definitions opposing viewpoints, when opponents engage in battle, going against one another Continue Reading. Each Continue Reading. In this paper I will describe a conflict situation with resolution strategies used Continue Reading. In this type of conflict, each group rather than the individual has taken an Continue Reading.
It is vital to embrace conflict and address problems through effective conflict-resolution Continue Reading. Conflict helps people recognize legitimate Continue Reading. This scenario depicts one of those areas Continue Reading. Isenhart and Spangle points out that at the beginning the conflict may start because of improper placement Continue Reading.
Conflict as it arises should be addressed Continue Reading. Continue Reading. People can hold different values potentially affecting Continue Reading. The way conflict resolution works is by identifying the problem then next is to evaluate why such circumstances are so, and finally essay on the aim of my life or she should seek Continue Reading.
Conflict management implemented within a business environment usually involves effective Continue Reading. The service also includes getting help from professionals students can engage. You can be assured that the work will may be unavailable or say in my grade. Then the company says that all the other talented essay writers in they master. Information is never recorded as they offer research paper writers thesis writing according to standard and.
Of ordering then. Kamala scriptures well wonder where you can inept words term confusion at honest. Write your perfect structured and intelligible for. All the term paper set a deadline and their inflicted damage nevertheless. Pax Ludens, a non-profit group in the Netherlands, offers conflict resolution simulations where students can learn the intricacies of global conflict.
Managing Social Processes and Making Decisions Research Papers examine how to place a business project with giving specific writing requirements needed to complete the research paper. Conflict Management Styles - Conflict Management Styles research papers discuss the various strategies on dealing with disagreements between individuals or groups. Active Listening - Research papers on active listening examine the communication technique often employed by professionals in the counseling or conflict resolution fields.
Face Saving in Marriage - Face Saving in Marriage Research Papers look at a sample of a research paper order placed for an analysis of a topic.There are many factors that play into sentencing juveniles or minors upon a crime committed. How old are they? Can they mentally form criminal intent?
Are they old enough to no longer be treated as children?
Probation Research Papers
Some people would argue that a criminal is just that, regardless of age. Research on the other hand shows that juveniles have underdeveloped. The juvenile justice system was founded with the goal to serve the best interests of the term papers on ancient nubia, with an understanding that youth possessed different needs than adults. Over the course of our semester we have come across various research studies that proves that the adult system is not well equipped to house and rehabilitate the delinquents.
These studies have shown that more juveniles that are transferred to the criminal justice system ends up back in the system, which means the recidivism rate. I would request that Senator Perkins vote against the proposed amendments to the Juvenile Act.
Part A Although public safety is both a legitimate and justifiable concern, the proposed changes to the purposes clause term papers on probation go against the primary purpose of the juvenile justice system, rehabilitation and treatment as opposed to punishment.
During the 19th century, the American legal system tended to treat juveniles who violated the criminal law much as it did adult offenders. Consequently, if courts. Juvenile Justice Consultant When thinking of reforming the juvenile justice system one has give me an essay about ambition think; what can we do to make this better for everyone involve?
There are some programs that can be implemented when trying to make a change in the juvenile system. Secondly the community where the youth will have a place to go and have something more constructive to do to keep them out of trouble.
Law enforcement. A juvenile is someone who is at or below the upper age of the original jurisdiction in their resident state Juvenile Justice, Juveniles due to age are not treated at the same level as adults; due to this we have Juvenile Justice.
Juvenile justice was said to be considered all the way back to the early years from the English brought over to American culture from England Juvenile Justice, Since then in America we have had 5 major periods in the Juvenile Justice system. Teen courts also called Youth Courts are a growing type of diversion program that.
Name four problems that existed with the juvenile justice system in the early 19thcentury. The juvenile justice term papers on amazoncom was subject to a lot of corruption and civil rights violations in its early stages. Juveniles did not have the same rights as adults and could be forced into terrible living or working conditions.
With no child labor laws, delinquent juveniles could be sentenced to forced labor in factories or to houses of refuge. With the ruling of Ex Parte Crouse, the state took ultimate responsibility. The juvenile justice system is a foundation in society that is granted certain powers and responsibilities.
It faces several different tasks, among the most important is maintaining order and preserving constitutional rights. When a juvenile is arrested and charged with committing a crime there are many different factors that will come in to play during the course of his arrest, trial, conviction, sentencing, and rehabilitation process. These diversion programs divert adolescents from entering the juvenile justice system and offer alternatives to formal disciplinary action.
Teen courts also called Youth Courts are a growing type of diversion program that utilize a therapeutic approach, with over 1, teen youth courts currently operating in the United States. They are designed to promote restorative justice, encouraging.
Also identified, is the history and what GJJS is about, the key issues the system is facing: budget cuts, over crowding, meeting educational requirements, ways we could reform through boot camps, make certain facilities. Introduction I. Freshman and Sophomore classes have requirements in three skills, but those requirements are not particularly high. Junior and Senior classes only have requirements in two skills, but they will be two of the major's four primary skills, and the requirements are higher.
A Sim will not be able to avoid probation without meeting the requirements in at least one skill. If The Sims 2: Seasons is installed, Sims will do assignments and write term papers more quickly in Fall.
Term papers on amazoncom
In The Sims 2: Universityclasses are one of the many ways to improve a Sim's class performance. Sims will term papers on conflict resolution go to class one hour before it starts. This autonomous action will be placed ahead of any queued actions, but will not cancel them. Also, it will not cancel the action the Sim is performing; the Sim will go to class when that action is finished or canceled.
If the autonomous "go to class" action is canceled, the player can get the Sim to go to class by clicking on the Sim and selecting "College Go to Class".
This can be done at any time while the class is in session, but Sims who are late to class will gain less class performance than those who are on time.
Sims are not term papers on leadership for missing class. Free parole papers, essays, and research papers. Even for a law student, writing a research paper about probation and parole topics is not an easy task! Probation officers are supervised by their Director or Chief Probation Officer, with the hierarchy descending to Deputy Chief, Supervisor, and then line probation officers. Some probation officers may specialize in one type of criminal, such as sex offenders, violent offenders, those that require electronic monitoring, and so forth.
As mentioned earlier, both parole and probation refer to conditions implemented in order to supervise victims of crime out of prison facilities. Crime victims get free to join the society, where they have to complete their terms under supervision Figgis, However, various conditions term papers on leadership their release, and when the conditions become violated; a term of incarceration may be imposed on the victim.
Therefore, both parole and probation get implemented to allow for compliance and rehabilitation of offenders. In order to allow offenders to change by themselves, probation and parole should be implemented for victims that do not cause immense insecurity to the public Thigpen et al. As such, the implementation of probation and parole allows for the gradual change of offenders.
Furthermore, parole and probation became key factors of managing the behavior of offenders within the community setting. Over the decades, especially during the s, crime activities gradually increased. As a result, several victims of crime have constantly been sent to prisons in order to serve their terms away from the society.
This ensured that the public remains safe from danger posed by untamed individuals. In the long-run, prison facilities became overcrowded and prison management became impossible to handle. In connection to that, the cost of managing prisons rose towards unacceptable levels in several states. Looking for a paper on Sociology? House Arrest: The offenders will live at home and must be at home at all times Better Essays words 2 pages Preview. Before the large-scale use of confinement, offenders were punished by inflicting pain.
Offenders were taken out in public to term papers on ancient nubia humiliated in front of society. For instance, if an offender was guilty of committing a crime they could be Stoned, beheaded, or kicked out of the community After inmates are released from prison, they need to learn how to re enter back into society, but some have no family support or anywhere to go, so they commit another crime and go right back to jail, a phenomenon called recidivism.
Having support is great after being released but not all support is the right support but there are many other options Many would be opposed to the early release of those who have committed even menial crimes without thought to the issue of overcrowding. In order to maintain public safety, certain measures need to be taken to make sure those who are being released are no threat and that those who would pose a risk, are kept behind bars Probation is a criminal sanction that permits court supervision of an offender in the community rather than sentencing him or her to prison.
Due to Assembly Billprobation practices have substantially increased. In order to accommodate a proficient environment for prisoners, inthe United States Supreme Court ordered California to drastically reduce its inmate population They are responsible for providing meaningful assistance to the court in its deliberations and decisions concerning criminal offenders.
Probation and parole officers deal with managing and operational activities. The Department of Community Corrections has the responsibility of supervising offenders who are on parole or probation, rehabilitative and restorative program services, and residential services Strong Essays words 2. It is applied to community sentences, alternatives to incarceration, such as suspended sentenced. The court sets probation and Parole. If an offender on probation or parole break any of the rules they must follow, they will be sent to jail.
Parole is the release of a prisoner temporarily, for special purpose, or permanently before the completion of a sentence, on the promise of good behavior John was every successful and reformed the adult drunkard, which soon led him to convince the court to release other offenders to his supervision. John Augustus idea of probation became a controversy, which was declared by police, court clerks, and turnkeys who were paid only when offenders were incarcerated The death penalty itself should be "executed" because of racial inequities, the concept of murder, the possibility of error, lack of deterrence, the cost, and an overwhelmed legal system.
Capital punishment is simply an outlet for the bloodlust of the American people Introduction 1. The death penalty is very discriminatory when it comes to racial issues The offender may have learned violence by seeing someone else being abused buying behavior literature review or they may have been victims themselves.
Because domestic violence is also a pattern, most offenders are arrested on subsequent domestic violence charges within a year after the conclusion of their previos conviction.
Most states provide pre and post release treatment programs to help paroled offenders convicted of domestic violence There are both advantages and disadvantages to community corrections and incarceration. I support community corrections because I believe it has more positives outcomes and less negative effects than incarceration. Community corrections have more advantages over incarceration and fewer disadvantages. During the time of King Henry VIII, for instance, no less than crimes were punishable by death, many of which were minor offenses.
Eventually, the courts began the practice of "binding over for good behavior," a form of temporary release during which offenders could take measures to secure pardons or lesser sentences. John Augustus, the "Father of Probation," is recognized as the first term papers on amazoncom probation officer Probation and Parole allows offenders to avoid imprisonment or have the opportunity to be released from a penal institution after serving a term papers on probation of their sentence.
Probation is usually ordered by the judge in lieu of incarceration. Damme, Y. The offender is granted probation only if he or she is not a risk to society and if incarceration is not what said offender needs. The individual placed on probation is allowed to live freely in society, however the individual has to abide by their conditions of supervision It is important to note that although Norway places a greater emphasis on rehabilitation, each department shares similar visions, goals, and values Better Essays words 1.
DOC Community Corrections - General Information
The concept of parole dates back to the establishment of the Elmira Reformatory. The goal of the Elmira Reformatory was to rehabilitate and reform the criminal instead of following the traditional method of silence, obedience, and labor. Parole was originally set up to encourage prisoners to do well, keep their noses clean, and become model prisoners.
Once a prisoner had shown rehabilitation and reform they were released prior to the execution of their full sentence However, there is much evidence against their argument.
Though these arguments tend to be based more on opinion and morality, there are quite a few facts that suggest dropping the penalty will term papers on conflict resolution met with great results.
The death penalty should be overturned because the cost is too high, the parole rates are still low, and the number of states without the penalty is decreasing Factors contributing to recidivism include law enforcement officers mistrust for reentry prisoners; lack of familial and community support; difficulties gaining employment due to criminal background, obstacles pertaining to housing.
Factors that may reduce recidivism, increase public safety and facilitate ex-offender reintegration transitions, as well as detrimental factors of recidivism are examined Better Essays words 4 pages Preview.